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Differences in stress level between people living in the cities and those who live in the countryside

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Объем работы: 24 стр.

Год сдачи: 2007

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Introduction 3
1. The concept of “stress” 6
2. Big-city stress (on example of New York) 10
3. The nature of rural stress 15
4. The comparative characteristic of the reasons of rural and big city stress 19
Conclusion 22
Bibliography 24
Too often when we think of places where quality of life is threatened by the spiral of rising taxes and declining services, cities come to mind - aging, rundown, unappealing cities.
Stress is an omnipresent fact of life in big city - and it’s getting worse. We work harder - an increase of almost four hours per week between the late eighties and the tu
of the century. We need more money to pay for rising taxes and inflation. We worry about another terrorist attack. And, to top it all off, stress might even age us more quickly at the cellular level. Researchers in San Francisco just completed a study that found that chronic emotional stress erodes telomerase, an enzyme in our cells that helps extend our life span, keeping us young and healthy. The cells of the most stressed-out women in the studies were effectively aged ten years more than normal.
In 1999, Nicholas Christenfeld, a psychology professor at the University of Califo
ia, examined the national rates at which people die of heart attacks. In New York, he noticed, the rates are 55 percent higher than the national average. “It stands out like a red light on the map,” he says. Then Christenfeld examined the rates of heart attacks among visitors to New York. Amazingly, those numbers were also elevated - 34 percent higher than normal. The reverse was also true - when New Yorkers travel to other parts of the country, their rates drop below the city’s norm by 20 percent.
A new survey of rural health workers and volunteers has identified an increase in rural stress, especially amongst land managers and country sports workers.
The research was carried out by the Countryside Alliance. A questionnaire was distributed to an estimated survey sample of 500 rural health workers and volunteers and received a 30% response rate.
Respondents indicated that groups most susceptible to stress are those directly involved with land and countryside management and primary food production i.e. farmers, farm workers, estate...
1. ACRE/Rural Minds, 1999. Rural poverty initiative You can’t eat the scenery (www.acre.org.uk)
2. Appleby, L., 2003. Mental health priorities for the coming period. Presentation at the launch of the SE Development Centre of NIMH(E), 29 April 2003.
3. Bosma, H., Marmot, M.G. & Hemmingway, H., 1997. Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study. British Medical Jou
al, 314: 558.
4. Ba
ett PA, Spence JD, Manuck SB, Jennings JR. Psychological stress and the progression of carotid artery disease. J Hypertens. 1997; 15: 49–55
5. Brunner, E. & Marmot, M., 1999. Social organisation, stress and health. In: Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G. (eds) The social determinants of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6. Carroll D, Smith GD, Sheffield D, Shipley MJ, Marmot MG. Pressor reactions to psychological stress and prediction of future blood pressure: data from the Whitehall II Study. BMJ. 1995; 310: 771–776
7. Countryside Agency, 2003. The state of the countryside 2020. Wetherby, W.Yorks: Countryside Agency Publications (www.countryside.gov.uk).
8. Dalgard, O.S. & Tambs, K., 1997. Urban environment and mental health: a longitudinal study. British Jou
al of Psychiatry, 171: 530-6
9. Department of health, 2002. National Suicide Prevention Strategy. London: Department of Health.
10. Freeman, H., editor, 1984. Mental Health and the Environment London: Churchill Livingstone.
11. Goodwin, J.S., 2000. Glass half full attitude promotes health in old age. Jou
al of the American Geriatrics Society, 48: 473-478.
12. Hanna, J. 2003. Social policy goals: links to nature conservation.
13. Health Education Authority, 1998. Community Action for Mental Health. London.
14. Henwood, K. 2002. Issues in health development: Environment and health: Is there a role for environmental and countryside agencies in promoting benefits to health? London: Health Development Agency (www.hda-online.org.uk).
15. Hippisley-Cox, J., Fielding, K. & Pringle, M.,...

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