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Aphorisms: Structural-semantic, grammatical and linguistical features

курсовые работы, английский язык

Объем работы: 40 стр.

Год сдачи: 2010

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1.1. Aphorisms: A Conceptual Review 6
1.2. Lexical and Structural Semantic Contents of Aphorisms 8
1.3. The Specificity and Usage of Aphoristic Style 15
2.1. The Life and Creativity of Sir Francis Bacon 24
2.2. Salient Features of Bacon’s Style 27
2.3. Different Uses of Bacon’s Aphoristic Sentences 35
APPENDIX 1 A Glossary of Literary Terms 41
APPENDIX 2 The Difference Between Aphorisms and Some Stylistic Devices 42
APPENDIX 3 Some Quotations and Aphorisms by Francis Bacon 45
Among various short literary forms written in prose, such as epigram, apothegm, maxim, anecdote, parable, proverb, fragment, short story, essay etc., aphorism still remains under-researched. Although aphorisms are common in the literatures of numerous cultural circles, they are continually popular among readers, and the authors of aphorisms resort to an enormous variety of stylistic forms, the genre failed to receive proper deal of attention from the theoreticians of literature. It is only in the recent years that the works of researchers of literature have slowly started to fill in the gap. The effort of investigating the genre of short prosaic form is worthwhile not only, as various theoreticians postulate, for its universal content but also for its unusual stylistic value.
In the history of literature, the style of aphorism went through numerous stages and metamorphoses. Aphorism is said to have originated already from the works of Hippocrates, the author of the famous saying «Vita brevis - ars longa» .The style of his aphorisms, which were actually medical diagnoses or a result of observing the natural phenomena, resembled precise formulae.
This specific stylistic form of scientific observations of Hippocrates was continued by later authors, e.g. a medieval monk from Sale
o, Johannes de Mediolano and Paracelsus (1493-1541). The aphorism of the Spanish writers Antonio Perez (1540-1611) and Balthasar Gracian (1601-1658), full of wit and criticism as well as various rhetoric figures, served as a means of conveying philological commentaries to the works of Latin classics (e.g. Tacit) and had a form of moralistic clues related to living in a society.
In the early 17th century, when the literary lounges appeared in France, formulating witty and well-composed aphorisms was one of the favourite entertainments among the participants of these meetings of intellectuals. Those varied activities prepared the basis for the mode
aphoristic form of writers and...
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