Текст Pharmaceuticals и задания к нему
контрольные работы, английский язык
Год сдачи: 2012
Стоимость: 200 руб.
Exercise IV: Read, analyse and translate the following text. + 5 вопросов по тексту
Pharmaceutical is a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease and for restoring, correction or modifying organic functions. Records of medical plants and minerals date to ancient Chinese, Hindi and Mediterranean civilizations. Ancient Greek physicians used a variety of drugs in their profession. There was a period of long sleep during Middle Ages, but then pharmaceutical practice began to develop rapidly, and in 1546 the first pharmacopoeia (list of drugs and their preparation) appeared in Germany. The profession of pharmacy is considered to have begun in 1617. Among the earliest mode
pharmaceuticals were the anesthetics; morphine, ether, ehloroform, cocaine appeared in the 19th century as well as other substances: strychnine (1817), quinine (1820), and nicotine (1828). Phenol (carbolic acid) was first used to prevent infection in 1865.
Pharmaceuticals are generally classified by chemical groups according to their work in the body (pharmacological effect), and therapeutic use. Alkaloids were the first pure pharmaceuticals derived from plants. They include quinine, morphine, nicotine and other substances. Drugs of animal origin include extracts containing hormones, such as insulin for use in treating diabetes.
Antibiotics, vaccines, human blood-plasma fractions, steroid hormones are also manufactured from natural substances. Vitamins are often made in the laboratories.
Medical substances may be added to water, alcohol or other solvents so that they can be used in a solution form. These may include sprits, elixirs and tinctures. Ointments, creams, pastes and jellies are semisolid preparations.
Перевод и 5 вопросов по тексту.
Task I. Complete the sentences adding a question tag and translate them:
1. Pharmaceutical is a substance, used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of disease, …?
2. Ancient Greek physicians used a...
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