Nouns in English and Russian languages
курсовые работы, лингвистика
Объем работы: 24 стр.
Год сдачи: 2013
Стоимость: 500 руб.
Chapter 1. The General Properties of a Noun in English 6
1.1. The Category of Gender 6
1.2. The Category of Number 8
1.3. The Category of Case 12
Chapter 2. Nouns in Russian Language 14
2.1. The General Properties of a Noun in Russian 14
2.2. Gender, cases and declension in Russian language 19
The word «noun» comes from the Latin «nomen» meaning «name». Word classes like nouns were first described by Sanskrit grammarian Painini and ancient Greeks like Dionysios Thrax, and defined in terms of their morphological properties. For example, in Ancient Greece, nouns can be inflected for grammatical case, such as dative or accusative.
The noun as a part of speech has the categorial meaning of «substance» or «thinness». It follows from this that the noun is the main nominative part of speech, effecting nomination of the fullest value within the framework of the notional division of the lexicon.
The noun has the power, by way of nomination, to isolate different properties of substances (i.e. direct and oblique qualities, and also actions and states as processual characteristics of substantive phenomena) and present them as corresponding self-dependent substances.
Expressions of natural language will have properties at different levels. They have formal properties, like what kinds of morphological prefixes or suffixes they can take, and what kinds of other expressions they can combine with, but they also have semantic properties, i.e. properties pertaining to their meaning.
The definition of nouns on the top of this page is thus a formal definition. That definition is uncontroversial, and has the advantage that it allows us to effectively distinguish nouns from non-nouns. However, it has the disadvandage that it does not apply to nouns in all languages.
For example in Russian, there are no definite articles, so one cannot define nouns by means of those. There are also several attempts of defining nouns in terms of their semantic properties.
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