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International organizations and international efforts to improve the business environment (combating to bribery, corruption and money laundering)

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Объем работы: 33 стр.

Год сдачи: 2013

Стоимость: 1500 руб.

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Introduction 1
Chapter 1 4
ational Business and corruption as separate concepts. 4
1.1. General characteristics of inte
ational business and its emergence. 5
1.2 Corruption in the local and inte
ational arena and why it matters 9
1.3 The definition and importance of inte
ational organizations nowadays. 11
Chapter 2 14
ational legal resistance of laundering cash and organized crime in the context of struggle against corruption 14
2.1. Inte
ational legal facilities of fight against corruption 14
2.2. Inte
ational organizations and conventions and its ways of solving set problems 15
2.3. New offers for corruption problem solving in the inte
ational level. 21
Conclusion: 30
Bibliography: 33
Rose-Ackerman (1975) describes the corruption that’s how ‘the person bribed must necessarily be acting as an agent for another individual or organization since the purpose of the bribe is to induce him to place his own interests ahead of the objectives of the organization for which he works.’ this corresponds to transparency Inte
ational’s definition, and it expands the definition of corruption into the broader area of professional ethics.
The struggle against fraud and corruption in the financial sector today - one of the most important issues in the inte
ational day's agenda. However, the efforts of the civilized world to solve this problem is often hampered on the lack of not only cooperation but also an elementary understanding between the authorities of major economic powers.
The Inte
ational Organization Tax Justice Network, scammers from the business in conjunction with senior corrupt officials in the past 15 years took about 25 trillion. dollars around the world. This amount on which the global financial oligarchy parasitizes (investment banks, lawyers, nominee directors, offshore centers, etc.) is about 50 percent of the GDP of the whole planet. The most meaningful crimes in this area in the West - corporate fraud of Enhron and Parmalat, complex financial frauds like Be
ie Madoff Affairs and Allen Stanford, dealers Kerveli from the bank Societe General and Quek Ado from UBS, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, subprime debt, Goldman Sachs, the manipulation with an interest rate of LIBOR banks RBS, Barclays, etc. The European Commission and the European Parliament discuss a draft Directive about the freezing and confiscation of proceeds criminally obtained for a year already. This document was approved by the European Parliament's Committee on Civil Rights Justice and Home Affairs around the world. The Adoption of the Directive is expected soon at a meeting of the European Parliament....
A mode
ational business is the process of inte
ationalization of entrepreneurship and in this point of view it is a synthesis of many areas of science.
ational business as a phenomenon reflects the totality of foreign economic relations connected with its organization, production of goods, performance of works, rendering of services and making a profit.
Global development in terms of innovative growth and creating a single economic space helps to change the role and share of business entities in the production of world GDP, their participation in the global investment processes, inte
ational trade and financial relations, etc.
Consideration the world economy processes as a whole, its individual subjects and areas allows each country to choose its concept of integrating to these processes, to determine the level of participation in the inte
ational division of labor and inte
ational economic relations. In this aspect, consideration of theory and contemporary trends of inte
ational business development becomes relevant.
The same way one problem that is solved by inte
ational organizations is corruption and money laundering.
Corruption is considered to be one of the most serious problems in the world, being a major obstacle to sustainable development. Most of all this problem affects the most vulnerable segments of the population.
Corruption undermines the foundations of the whole society. Its impact on the private sector is no less significant. Economic growth is slowed down, distorting competition terms, the reputation of companies undermine, and the conditions for the offenses are created.
Considered the documents developed by the inte
ational community aimed at fighting against corruption and critically reflect on existing realities in relation to the level of corruption in the world, the conclusion seems a reasonable lack of effective, practicable actions to prevent corruption. The States do not tend to burden themselves with inte
ational commitments to fight with corruption, it is preferable to hide behind the screen of the recommendations and act according to the principle of profitability. Most of the acts of inte
ational organizations aimed at combating with corruption crimes solve only certain aspects of the problem of corruption. Warranted conclusion that by now the global anti-corruption strategy is under development, but central element is missing is a core, designed to play a crucial role in the effectiveness of inte
ational legal tools to combat corruption.
The key points that allow to argue above, are following:
1. Most of the anti-corruption conventions limit its effect to certain geographical region. For example, the Council of Europe Criminal Law Convention on Corruption creates a model of harmonization of legal norms aimed both against Transnational and against domestic corruption, primarily in order to create an enabling environment for more effective mutual legal assistance in their achievable geographic limits.
2. Some conventions affect the issues of corruption in a particular aspect. This is particularly characteristic for the OECD Convention, which pays attention on the corruption which is directly related to the economy.
3. Existing inte
ational anti-corruption legal instruments do not tend to be a significant unification. So the purpose of the OECD convention is to establish "functional equivalent": the States parties have the right to select actions for the introduction of legal sanctions imposed for bribery to foreign public officials, and the results should be comparable. It does not require uniformity or...

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